India has the third-largest educational system in the world after the United States of America and China. Higher education in India has been playing a pivotal role not only for the social and political development but also for the economic development of the country. Leading higher educational institutions help in creating information-based society. The Leading Institutes for Excellence in Education are the prestigious institutions as they are essential in developing a nation’s competitiveness in the global knowledge economy. These institutions, at the pinnacle of higher education hierarchy, play an important role in disseminating knowledge, educating the skilled workforce for technological and intellectual leadership. In the highly versatile economy which depends upon educated and skilled workers, excellence has become a buzzword in common parlance. Be it the field of sports, arts, cooking, music or education, excellence has become the ultimate aim. Today, academic institutions in different parts of the world are aiming for academic excellence so that they may lead others in the field of education, research and knowledge. The question of excellence is pertinent with respect to excellence in education in India too, because the way we define excellence in education dictates the way we achieve it. The present structure of the education system in India does students a tremendous injustice by not delivering the quality education we are capable of. Outdated and rigid curricula, rote learning method, lack of research and analytical thinking, and a crunch of faculty and resources are making the Indian Higher Education System lag behind. The changing nature of work, technology and competition in the global job market has necessitated an urgent need for Indian education system to ensure that quality remains core to the way we deliver excellence in education. This is an imperative to keep pace with the global need. Some institutions such as the IIMs and IITs have been globally acclaimed for their standard of education. The IITs enrol more than 9,000 students annually and the alumni have contributed to the growth of both the private sector and the public sector of India. However, India has failed to produce world-class universities like Harvard and Cambridge. In fact, no Indian university has place among the top 200 universities of the world as per Times Higher Education Rankings 2015-16.

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Some institutions such as the
IIMs and IITs have been globally
acclaimed for their standard of
education. The IITs enrol more than
9,000 students annually and the
alumni have contributed to the
growth of both the private sector
and the public sector of India.

The private sector has played an important role in the growth of the higher education ii India, especially in professional disciplines. Today, private institutions have helped in making doctors, engineers, managers and other professionals side by side with the government-funded institutions.



It is in this regard that the benchmark set in terms of quality and delivery of education imparted by IITs and the IIMs and many privately funded institutions becomes important. Some of the noteworthy institutions are as follows:

The Higher Education sector in India has witnessed a tremendous rise in the recent times. This was made possible mainly due to the large number of private institutions of higher education set up by the private sector. According to a report by FICCI&EY, more than 60 % of higher education institutions in India are private institutions in which nearly 60% of the total number of students is enrolled. The increasing number of students enrolled in these institutes indicates that the proliferation of vocational institutions, along with commercialisation of education system, is here to stay. However, this growth has often been accompanied with compromising quality. Besides internal management issues, the external regulation has also focused on inputs rather than process or output. As a result higher education in India has lost its way in terms of creating new frontiers of knowledge. The emerging global competition and commitment have created a complex situation. It is high time the policy makers looked seriously into all contours of quality of institutes of higher learning. The problem has been compounded by shortage of good quality faculty. However, it equally applies to government-funded institutions. Many private institutions have earned praise worldwide because of professional excellence they have been able to achieve in the field of education. Their brand and image is exemplified by the quality of their output. The success and achievement of their alumni have become a yardstick of their professional excellence. In fact, there is a need to differentiate the wheat from the chaff as all public higher education institutions are not good and all private higher education institutions are not bad.

The private sector has played an important role in the growth of the higher education in India, especially in professional disciplines. Today, private institutions have helped in making doctors, engineers, managers and other professionals side by side with the government-funded institutions. They have been able to carve out a niche in every domain of the public life and create a meaningful difference. These students enter the global economy with the ability to apply what they learned in these institutions to a variety of ever-changing situations that they couldn’t foresee before
graduating. That is the mark of quality education and a truer indication of academic excellence. As it is highlighted by various surveys which are conducted from time to time in the country, the problem in India is not of unemployment, but of “employability”. There is a gap between educational curriculum and skills needed for the industry at the entry level. According to the third edition of the National Employability Report, Engineering Graduates – 2014, released by a private employability solutions company, only 18.09% engineering graduates actually get a job. The low employability among engineering graduates is a cumulative outcome of poor education standards and higher demand of skilled employees, creating a drastic skill gap in the country. Most of the graduates from Indian higher education are not receiving the education that sufficiently prepares them for the demands and opportunities of the country’s rapidly changing economy. The obvious question that accompanies such a rapid expansion of higher education is whether or not quality can be maintained by the higher education institutes. Now excellence has become the core priority for the Indian Higher Education System. For an institution to attain that level, it is important that the institution is having abundant resources, high concentration of talent and rich learning and research environment. According to a report by British Council, for excellence the Indian Higher Education should emphasise improvements in teaching and learning, and focus on learning outcomes; faculty development to improve teaching; increased integration between research and teaching; more international partnerships in teaching as well as research; better links between industry and research to stimulate innovation; and connecting institutions through networks, alliances and consortia. In fulfilling this criterion, role of privately-funded institutions is undeniable, which are making a conscious effort in incorporating the standards of ‘world- class’ universities by encouraging strategic vision and innovation, so as to respond effectively to the demands of the fast-changing global knowledge economy. This shows that the private institutes providing quality higher education are the norm rather than exception and that privatisation of higher education is now an irreversible trend in India.


21 Apr / 2017


School of Hotel Management


1009, G.T. Road, Badshahi Road, Burdwan-713101, Ph.: 0342 2665800/+918697969699

Corporate Office : 2, Fern Road, 2nd Floor, Gariahat, Kolkata-700 019

The two of the main branches of knowledge—
Management and Engineering—have emerged
as the most important branches which are not only
necessary for the sound foundation of economy,
but also as the foundation of sound systems
of knowledge that open a door of opportunity
for the aspiring millions of Indians.

the business. It prepaxes the student by working on assignments, presentations, meticulous training that gives crucial capabilities required to manage real-life business situations. These days, companies seek a Management degree or diploma as an essential qualification rather than a desirable attribute. This is the notable requirement for the consulting and finance companies. According to the results of important surveys, there has been an increase in number of finance directors with MBAs. The requirement of hiring a Management degree or diploma holder is not limited to just finance and consulting sector, but there are several other sectors which are equally under the influence of Business specialisation. Management education has also influenced non-profit sectors like local government, charities, civil services, law, education and even management of places of worship. The latest trend that has appeared in the popularity of dotcoms and entrepreneurship is the brainchild of business specialisation (a degree or a diploma).

As we have already discussed, since only 18 percent of India’s university-age population is enrolled in institutions of higher education, there is a vast scope for private players to run technical institutes. Though many institutes come into existence every year, all of them do not have the infrastructure needed to impart world-class education. But some of them are even better than many Government-aided and autonomous institutes. They belie the general perception that private institutes are established only with a view to making money. Their alumni are always treated on a par with those of any institute of global standing—both in terms of training and information. The placement records of some private institutes speak volumes about the education they impart. They have established those technical institutes as brands on equal footing with IITs and IIMs.

Now, a bird’s-eye view of India’s education area makes it quite clear that all the Government-funded and autonomous institutions like IITs, NITs and IIMs cannot cater to India’s 12-crore-strong university-age population. In 1995, the

Government of India introduced in Parliament a Bill to make room for foreign universities to operate in the country. The Foreign Education Providers Bill succeeds the 1995 Bill that had been languishing for over two decades in Parliament. Faced with delays in enacting the law allowing foreign universities to set up base in the country, the Human Resource Development Ministry decided in September 2013 to take the executive order route to open the doors for the top 400 institutions to set up campuses in the country and award degrees, giving Indian students the opportunity to study in global institutions without leaving home or spending a fortune in dollars. The proposed UGC (Establishment & Operation of Campuses of Foreign Educational Institutions) Rules required that foreign education providers set up the India campuses as not-for-profit companies, that is companies set up under Section 25 of the old Companies Act (Section 8 of the new one). The proposal had the support of the Department of Industrial Policy & Promotion and the Department of Economic Affairs. However, the regulations were never issued with the Government’s legislative department failing to notify them. Mired in scandals and controversies, India has been unable to respond positively to the need of infrastructure needed to facilitate opening of more and more institutions like IITs, IIMs and NITs. This situation has led to the mushrooming of private technical institutions. Though majority of such institutions aim only at misleading the aspiring youth and making money, some are really as good as premier institutes in all respects.

After years of lobbying for autonomous status for IIMs, finally a legislation is underway which will empower the 19 IIMs to award degrees to students instead of diplomas. Unlike the IITs, which are governed by their own Act of Parliament, the IIMs are run by registered societies and therefore, award postgraduate diplomas at the end of their two-year programmes instead of an MBA. The proposed legislations will make the IIMs institutes of national importance and confer degree granting powers. The Bill, when passed, will mainly benefit graduates applying abroad for research opportunities.

India has a tremendous opportunity, an opportunity provided by a unique combination of the huge availability of talent in student numbers with an education system that—with all its problems—has demonstrated its ability to respond effectively to market demand, a strong social propensity to invest in education at great personal cost, and an abundance of the political and intellectual freedom in which academic enquiry can thrive. And thus the opportunity must not be lost in focusing on higher education investment on building the leading centres of excellence that will produce the country’s intellectuals in the future.




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Questions And Answers From The

BBC World TV Quiz Game

Competition Success Review had been serialising selected questions from the book BBC:

The Complete Mastermind. Now we are proud to present different sets of questions every month from
another book—BBC Mastermind India, edited and compiled by India’s Ace Quiz Master Siddhartha Basu
and published by Teksons Bookshop, New Delhi, in association with BBC. CSR hopes that its readers
from all over India will find the series useful not only for various competitive examinations
but also in widening knowledge base of India and the World, so that
they are able to participate creditably in various Quiz Contests.



  1. Which island in the Pacific Ocean was discovered by the Dutch navigator Jacob Roggeveen on Easter Sunday in 1772 ?
  2. Which biochemist and critic of US nuclear policy became the first man to win two individual Nobel Prizes in different disciplines, in 1962 ?
  3. Which tendon in the human body is named after a Greek hero in the Trojan War ?
  4. In the Tkamayana, who appeared in the form of a golden deer to lure Rama away from Sita ?
  5. The work of which Greek mathematician is contained in the 13-volume dements which is still used in geometry ?
  6. After which financial agent of Queen Elizabeth I is the monetary principle, Had money drives out good’, named ?
  7. After which inventor of the first digital calculator has a computer language been named ?
  8. Which word of German origin translates as ‘battling spirit’ ?
  9. Which Board of Revenue president under Lord Cornwallis evolved the Permanent Settlement system ?
  10. The kings of which Indian dynasty that flourished in the North West, assumed the title Devaputra ?
  1. On which river does the world’s largest river island Majul; stand ?
  2. Which film studio, set up by Himanshu Rai in 1934. produced the pioneering films, Karigan, Achhut Kanya anc Jivar Bhata ?
  3. Which newspaper published from Calcutta was established in 1875 by Robert Knight as an extension of an earlier paper, Friend of India ?
  4. Of which species of birds are yellow-billed, open-billed white and saddle-billed varieties ?
  5. Which of the Kalidasa’s work is an account of the birth of the war god, Skanda ?
  6. Pragjyotishpur, located on the river Brahmaputra, was the capital of which ancient Indian kingdom ?
  7. From the abbreviation of which term did the vehicle name ‘Jeep’ come about ?
  8. Which automobile company was founded by August Horsch and named after the German word for ‘hear’ ?
  9. Which American astronomer in 1905 predicted the existence of Pluto ?
  10. What name was coined by mathematician Eward Kasner’s nephew for the sum one followed by a hundred zeroes ?


ducation plays a predominant role in this world. It is a major aspect of development of any modern society and individuals. The Indian Vedas regard education as something an individual self-reliant and selfless. According to Vivekananda, education is the manifestation of perfection already in men. To Vivekananda, education was not only collection of information, but something more meaningful; he felt education should be man-making, life-giving and character-building. To him education was an assimilation of noble ideas. In the words of Dr. S. Radhakrishnan, “Education according to Indian tradition is not merely a means of earning a living; nor is it only a nursery of thought or a school of citizenship. It is initiation into the life of spirit and training of human souls in the pursuit of truth and the practice of virtue.” Education is a never-ending process and excellence is the motivation which gives modes and means to this process. Genuine education is a flow of reflection and action; there is never a dull moment in a fulfilling educational process. It is within these perspectives that the idea of excellence in education is conceptualised, approached and practised. When we talk of

excellence, synonymous with perfection, we must not forget the ideas expressed by thinkers and philosophers. While Dutch Philosopher Benedict Spinoza was of the view that “All things excellent are as difficult as they are rare”, the great mind like Voltaire-the French philosopher, thought that “Perfection is attained by slow degrees; it requires the hand of time.” If we put the two thoughts in succession, they will certainly drive home the idea that perfection or excellence is not a quality that can be achieved by anyone or anything easily and all of a sudden. But they certainly hint at the possibility of achieving this rare feat over the time, if constant effort is made sincerely. Education should consist of a series of enchantments, each raising the individual to a higher level of awareness, understanding, and kinship with all living things. Seen in this perspective, excellence in education achieved by India cannot be dismissed as only an idea, but as a phenomenon that is as significant as it is necessary. A writer of global repute, who is also a former US diplomat, Mr. William H. Avery, in his book ‘China’s Nightmare, America’s Dream: India as the Next Global Power’ has expressed the view that India is poised to become the next


global power and there is a battle, taking place between India and China—not for today’s economic growth, but for economic growth a decade from now. In his book, Mr. Avery writes, ‘India possesses the same core values that underpinned the Anglo- American relationship: democracy, human rights, the rule of law and the free market’. He has quoted the World Bank statistics which treat higher education enrolment as a leading indicator of economic growth. According to the World Bank, when a country substantially increases the number of university students, that country tends to enjoy a better economic growth in the decade that follows. According to Mr. Avery, names of Japan and Korea testify to it, if we look back into the achievement made by them in the early and the late 1980s, respectively. Likewise, China will very soon reap the rewards of its annual investments in higher education, according to him. He says that India lags behind China with regard to enrolments into institutions of higher education. While 26 percent of China’s university-age population is enrolled, in India it is only 18 percent. These facts are, however, not very discouraging, because in Year 2000, China lagged behind India in enrolment rates. It is after 2000 that India was left behind by China, because China decided to make higher education a policy priority. In India too, Government is taking concrete steps in this direction. Giving a boost to higher learning and with the promise of providing one major Central institute in each State, the Government in Budget 2015-16 earmarked Rs. 26,855 crore for higher education, an increase of 13.31 percent over previous year’s 12.9 percent.

Education of a nation is one of the foremost requirements for its development. India’s advantage of having a large population of youth presents a huge opportunity to the players in the education sector as well as scope to the government for development of this sector and consequendy, the country. A Deloitte study has recognised the Indian education sector as a ‘sunrise sector’ for investments due to increasing literacy and enrolment rates, aspirational value of education and rapidly growing per capita income. The Government of India has also started giving a lot of stress on the creation of an atmosphere where the shortcomings like insufficient preparation for university studies can be done away with and identified that everybody should get primary education and that can be ascertained by comparing the literacy rates as mentioned in the Census 2001 and Census 2011. As per the Census 2011, effective literacy rate increased to a total of 74.04 percent, with a 14% increase to that in 2001, with 82.14 percent of males and 65.46 percent of the females being literate. However, even today, a lot needs to be done as only 42 million children go to school. It
is indeed a pity that a staggering 200 million children between 6 and 14 years do not even complete eight years of elementary education which has been made a fundamental right. Young people are thought to be the agents of social transformation in general and economic growth in particular, so India needs to pay a lot of attention to the young people and must see them through the secondary stage of education. Only then, it can think of getting as many of them as possible ready for the attainment of higher education that we have been hitherto talking about.

In December 2011, the Government tabled the Higher Education and Research Bill, 2011 in the Rajya Sabha, with an aim to promote autonomy of higher education and innovation besides providing for comprehensive and integrated growth of higher education and research on a par with education standards abroad. The Bill was, however, withdrawn on September 24, 2014 from Parliament after the approval of the Union Cabinet, chaired by Prime Minister Mr. Narendra Modi. The Government in July 2014 constituted a UGC review committee recognising the need for restructuring the UGC and reshaping its educational leadership and regulatory role to address imperatives and challenges in the higher education sector in the country. The committee headed by Dr. Hari Gautam submitted its report to the Secretary (Higher Education) in March 2015, recommending far-reaching reforms, including scrapping of policies under which universities are categorised. It also suggested a national research aptitude test for doing Ph.D. and a single term for Vice Chancellors, besides scrapping the criterion that requires a person to have 10 years’ experience as professor to be eligible for elevation as VC. The report said that “UGC has side-stepped its function of being a sentinel of excellence in education and embraced the relatively easy function of funding education”. It also said that the UGC chairperson “should be advised to strictly keep a vigilant track of the various performance areas of the UGC and assess contribution at all levels”. Making a stinging attack on the style of functioning of the UGC, which governs higher education in the country, the committee had said that it had not only “failed to fulfil its mandate but also has not been able to deal with emerging diverse complexities”. The HRD Ministry and NITI Aayog are examining the report of the Hari Gautam Panel, which has raised serious questions about the functioning of the University Grants Commission (UGC).

Former President Dr. A.P.J. Kalam has said that a nation’s good educational model depends upon research and enquiry, creativity and innovation, use of high technology, entrepreneurial and moral leadership. We should, however, not forget that people have been able to change the world qualitatively because of their unflinching faith in scientific endeavours. It is our scientific attitude which enabled us to unravel the mysteries shrouding nature. This attitude of ours encouraged us to carry on our experimentation, discover numerous principles and invent innumerable things. Engineering started to materialise as a human endeavour which was to give a new dimension to the whole thought-pattern. Today, Engineering has diversified greatly and is thought to be the main propellant to drive civilisation towards the all-new destinations, and humanity does not want to look back any longer. In other words, Engineering has become an indispensable and inseparable part of human existence. If we


talk of Engineering with regard to India, we should not forget to mention the contribution of Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs). As the world is moving at a terribly fast pace, India is supposed to get on with it. IITs have done a tremendous job by offering what is needed by the country to walk hand in hand with the rest of the world in this age of cut-throat competition. IITs are now eighteen in number and all of them are autonomous Engineering and Technology-oriented institutes of higher education established and declared as Institutes of National Importance by Parliament. These have been set up with a view to training scientists and engineers with the sole aim of developing a skilled workforce to support the economic and social development of India after Independence in 1947.

Besides, ISM-Dhanbad is considered to be on a par with IITs. All the IITs as well as Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad (ISM- Dhanbad) are autonomous universities that have freedom to draft their own curricula. In fact, when India got independence from the British rule, it needed a vast number of engineers as everything was in a shambles. But resources were very limited and lots of natural resources were lying neglected which needed experts to be put to good use. Such a sorry state of affairs compelled the wise and dedicated leaders of India to attach a lot of importance to introducing Engineering education in India. Since Independence, Engineering, as a branch of knowledge, has been growing and evolving at a very fast pace.

While analysing the growth of education sector in India, we must mention that India has also benefited from the experiences, of which otherwise it would have been ignorant, due to foreign rule, i.e. the British Raj. In other words, political changes also brought in their wake the knowledge about the outside world in almost all the spheres of human activity. For instance, India would not have enriched its treasure of knowledge, if it had not been ruled by the British. The British, no doubt, exploited and coerced the Indians, but one cannot deny the fact that they paved the way for many new systems of knowledge like Business Management in India. The British regularized the education system from primary stage to University level in India and established an Education Department. In 1857 A.D. Calcutta, Bombay and Madras Universities were established. The credit of origin of administrative machinery also goes to the British rule. The post- mutiny period witnessed the growth and development of this administrative system. The Indian Civil Service, the Indian Police Service, the Indian Audit and Account Service, the Indian Medical Service, the Indian Education Service, the Revenue and Judicial Service created an administrative machinery that not only shouldered the responsibility of the work of Government on a large scale but also dealt with the famine, plague, means of transport and communication, agricultural projects, etc. After more than six and a half decades of Independence, if we evaluate the achievement made by India


in the field of education, we at once become aware of the contribution made by a number of institutes meant for imparting knowledge in various areas.

As the economy has been identified as the most important determinant of a country’s strength and power at the global level, India has also set a great store by the branches of knowledge that are necessary for building a sound economy. The two of the main branches of knowledge—Management and Engineering—have emerged as the most important branches which are not only necessary for the sound foundation of economy, but also as the foundation of sound systems of knowledge that open a door of opportunity for the aspiring millions of Indians. If the contribution of all the Indian institutions imparting Management education is considered as a whole, one cannot help mentioning the names of the Indian Institutes of Management, which are nineteen in number. IIMs. as they are popularly known, are graduate business schools tha: also provide consultancy services in various sectors of Indian economy and conduct world-class research in the field of Management. They were created by the Central Government with a view to identifying the brightest intellectual resource; needed for the growth of Indian economy. Though we have been witnessing a mushrooming growth of Engineering colleges and Management institutes across the country, not all of them fulfill the conditions that are required for ar Engineering college or a B-School in the real sense. There is no denying the fact that in addition to the Indian Institutes of Technologies (IITs), ISM-Dfcanbad, etc. there are thirty one National Institutes of Technology (NITs) and nineteen IIMs a; well as a number of other private Management and Engineering institutes which are comparable to any global institution. A degree or diploma in Business Management is a recognised qualification worldwide. Such degree holders have very wide scope as well as knowledge to grab opportunities to reach higher level in management or any other higher-level position. It give; the knowledge for business and trains how to face the problem; related to business and how to rise up during crucial period of