Questions And Answers From The
BBC World TV Quiz Game
Competition Success Review had been serialising selected questions from the book BBC:
The Complete Mastermind. Now we are proud to present different sets of questions every month from
another book—BBC Mastermind India, edited and compiled by India’s Ace Quiz Master Siddhartha Basu
and published by Teksons Bookshop, New Delhi, in association with BBC. CSR hopes that its readers
from all over India will find the series useful not only for various competitive examinations
but also in widening knowledge base of India and the World, so that
they are able to participate creditably in various Quiz Contests.
- Which island in the Pacific Ocean was discovered by the Dutch navigator Jacob Roggeveen on Easter Sunday in 1772 ?
- Which biochemist and critic of US nuclear policy became the first man to win two individual Nobel Prizes in different disciplines, in 1962 ?
- Which tendon in the human body is named after a Greek hero in the Trojan War ?
- In the Tkamayana, who appeared in the form of a golden deer to lure Rama away from Sita ?
- The work of which Greek mathematician is contained in the 13-volume dements which is still used in geometry ?
- After which financial agent of Queen Elizabeth I is the monetary principle, Had money drives out good’, named ?
- After which inventor of the first digital calculator has a computer language been named ?
- Which word of German origin translates as ‘battling spirit’ ?
- Which Board of Revenue president under Lord Cornwallis evolved the Permanent Settlement system ?
- The kings of which Indian dynasty that flourished in the North West, assumed the title Devaputra ?
- On which river does the world’s largest river island Majul; stand ?
- Which film studio, set up by Himanshu Rai in 1934. produced the pioneering films, Karigan, Achhut Kanya anc Jivar Bhata ?
- Which newspaper published from Calcutta was established in 1875 by Robert Knight as an extension of an earlier paper, Friend of India ?
- Of which species of birds are yellow-billed, open-billed white and saddle-billed varieties ?
- Which of the Kalidasa’s work is an account of the birth of the war god, Skanda ?
- Pragjyotishpur, located on the river Brahmaputra, was the capital of which ancient Indian kingdom ?
- From the abbreviation of which term did the vehicle name ‘Jeep’ come about ?
- Which automobile company was founded by August Horsch and named after the German word for ‘hear’ ?
- Which American astronomer in 1905 predicted the existence of Pluto ?
- What name was coined by mathematician Eward Kasner’s nephew for the sum one followed by a hundred zeroes ?
ducation plays a predominant role in this world. It is a major aspect of development of any modern society and individuals. The Indian Vedas regard education as something an individual self-reliant and selfless. According to Vivekananda, education is the manifestation of perfection already in men. To Vivekananda, education was not only collection of information, but something more meaningful; he felt education should be man-making, life-giving and character-building. To him education was an assimilation of noble ideas. In the words of Dr. S. Radhakrishnan, “Education according to Indian tradition is not merely a means of earning a living; nor is it only a nursery of thought or a school of citizenship. It is initiation into the life of spirit and training of human souls in the pursuit of truth and the practice of virtue.” Education is a never-ending process and excellence is the motivation which gives modes and means to this process. Genuine education is a flow of reflection and action; there is never a dull moment in a fulfilling educational process. It is within these perspectives that the idea of excellence in education is conceptualised, approached and practised. When we talk of
excellence, synonymous with perfection, we must not forget the ideas expressed by thinkers and philosophers. While Dutch Philosopher Benedict Spinoza was of the view that “All things excellent are as difficult as they are rare”, the great mind like Voltaire-the French philosopher, thought that “Perfection is attained by slow degrees; it requires the hand of time.” If we put the two thoughts in succession, they will certainly drive home the idea that perfection or excellence is not a quality that can be achieved by anyone or anything easily and all of a sudden. But they certainly hint at the possibility of achieving this rare feat over the time, if constant effort is made sincerely. Education should consist of a series of enchantments, each raising the individual to a higher level of awareness, understanding, and kinship with all living things. Seen in this perspective, excellence in education achieved by India cannot be dismissed as only an idea, but as a phenomenon that is as significant as it is necessary. A writer of global repute, who is also a former US diplomat, Mr. William H. Avery, in his book ‘China’s Nightmare, America’s Dream: India as the Next Global Power’ has expressed the view that India is poised to become the next
global power and there is a battle, taking place between India and China—not for today’s economic growth, but for economic growth a decade from now. In his book, Mr. Avery writes, ‘India possesses the same core values that underpinned the Anglo- American relationship: democracy, human rights, the rule of law and the free market’. He has quoted the World Bank statistics which treat higher education enrolment as a leading indicator of economic growth. According to the World Bank, when a country substantially increases the number of university students, that country tends to enjoy a better economic growth in the decade that follows. According to Mr. Avery, names of Japan and Korea testify to it, if we look back into the achievement made by them in the early and the late 1980s, respectively. Likewise, China will very soon reap the rewards of its annual investments in higher education, according to him. He says that India lags behind China with regard to enrolments into institutions of higher education. While 26 percent of China’s university-age population is enrolled, in India it is only 18 percent. These facts are, however, not very discouraging, because in Year 2000, China lagged behind India in enrolment rates. It is after 2000 that India was left behind by China, because China decided to make higher education a policy priority. In India too, Government is taking concrete steps in this direction. Giving a boost to higher learning and with the promise of providing one major Central institute in each State, the Government in Budget 2015-16 earmarked Rs. 26,855 crore for higher education, an increase of 13.31 percent over previous year’s 12.9 percent.
Education of a nation is one of the foremost requirements for its development. India’s advantage of having a large population of youth presents a huge opportunity to the players in the education sector as well as scope to the government for development of this sector and consequendy, the country. A Deloitte study has recognised the Indian education sector as a ‘sunrise sector’ for investments due to increasing literacy and enrolment rates, aspirational value of education and rapidly growing per capita income. The Government of India has also started giving a lot of stress on the creation of an atmosphere where the shortcomings like insufficient preparation for university studies can be done away with and identified that everybody should get primary education and that can be ascertained by comparing the literacy rates as mentioned in the Census 2001 and Census 2011. As per the Census 2011, effective literacy rate increased to a total of 74.04 percent, with a 14% increase to that in 2001, with 82.14 percent of males and 65.46 percent of the females being literate. However, even today, a lot needs to be done as only 42 million children go to school. It
is indeed a pity that a staggering 200 million children between 6 and 14 years do not even complete eight years of elementary education which has been made a fundamental right. Young people are thought to be the agents of social transformation in general and economic growth in particular, so India needs to pay a lot of attention to the young people and must see them through the secondary stage of education. Only then, it can think of getting as many of them as possible ready for the attainment of higher education that we have been hitherto talking about.
In December 2011, the Government tabled the Higher Education and Research Bill, 2011 in the Rajya Sabha, with an aim to promote autonomy of higher education and innovation besides providing for comprehensive and integrated growth of higher education and research on a par with education standards abroad. The Bill was, however, withdrawn on September 24, 2014 from Parliament after the approval of the Union Cabinet, chaired by Prime Minister Mr. Narendra Modi. The Government in July 2014 constituted a UGC review committee recognising the need for restructuring the UGC and reshaping its educational leadership and regulatory role to address imperatives and challenges in the higher education sector in the country. The committee headed by Dr. Hari Gautam submitted its report to the Secretary (Higher Education) in March 2015, recommending far-reaching reforms, including scrapping of policies under which universities are categorised. It also suggested a national research aptitude test for doing Ph.D. and a single term for Vice Chancellors, besides scrapping the criterion that requires a person to have 10 years’ experience as professor to be eligible for elevation as VC. The report said that “UGC has side-stepped its function of being a sentinel of excellence in education and embraced the relatively easy function of funding education”. It also said that the UGC chairperson “should be advised to strictly keep a vigilant track of the various performance areas of the UGC and assess contribution at all levels”. Making a stinging attack on the style of functioning of the UGC, which governs higher education in the country, the committee had said that it had not only “failed to fulfil its mandate but also has not been able to deal with emerging diverse complexities”. The HRD Ministry and NITI Aayog are examining the report of the Hari Gautam Panel, which has raised serious questions about the functioning of the University Grants Commission (UGC).
Former President Dr. A.P.J. Kalam has said that a nation’s good educational model depends upon research and enquiry, creativity and innovation, use of high technology, entrepreneurial and moral leadership. We should, however, not forget that people have been able to change the world qualitatively because of their unflinching faith in scientific endeavours. It is our scientific attitude which enabled us to unravel the mysteries shrouding nature. This attitude of ours encouraged us to carry on our experimentation, discover numerous principles and invent innumerable things. Engineering started to materialise as a human endeavour which was to give a new dimension to the whole thought-pattern. Today, Engineering has diversified greatly and is thought to be the main propellant to drive civilisation towards the all-new destinations, and humanity does not want to look back any longer. In other words, Engineering has become an indispensable and inseparable part of human existence. If we
talk of Engineering with regard to India, we should not forget to mention the contribution of Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs). As the world is moving at a terribly fast pace, India is supposed to get on with it. IITs have done a tremendous job by offering what is needed by the country to walk hand in hand with the rest of the world in this age of cut-throat competition. IITs are now eighteen in number and all of them are autonomous Engineering and Technology-oriented institutes of higher education established and declared as Institutes of National Importance by Parliament. These have been set up with a view to training scientists and engineers with the sole aim of developing a skilled workforce to support the economic and social development of India after Independence in 1947.
Besides, ISM-Dhanbad is considered to be on a par with IITs. All the IITs as well as Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad (ISM- Dhanbad) are autonomous universities that have freedom to draft their own curricula. In fact, when India got independence from the British rule, it needed a vast number of engineers as everything was in a shambles. But resources were very limited and lots of natural resources were lying neglected which needed experts to be put to good use. Such a sorry state of affairs compelled the wise and dedicated leaders of India to attach a lot of importance to introducing Engineering education in India. Since Independence, Engineering, as a branch of knowledge, has been growing and evolving at a very fast pace.
While analysing the growth of education sector in India, we must mention that India has also benefited from the experiences, of which otherwise it would have been ignorant, due to foreign rule, i.e. the British Raj. In other words, political changes also brought in their wake the knowledge about the outside world in almost all the spheres of human activity. For instance, India would not have enriched its treasure of knowledge, if it had not been ruled by the British. The British, no doubt, exploited and coerced the Indians, but one cannot deny the fact that they paved the way for many new systems of knowledge like Business Management in India. The British regularized the education system from primary stage to University level in India and established an Education Department. In 1857 A.D. Calcutta, Bombay and Madras Universities were established. The credit of origin of administrative machinery also goes to the British rule. The post- mutiny period witnessed the growth and development of this administrative system. The Indian Civil Service, the Indian Police Service, the Indian Audit and Account Service, the Indian Medical Service, the Indian Education Service, the Revenue and Judicial Service created an administrative machinery that not only shouldered the responsibility of the work of Government on a large scale but also dealt with the famine, plague, means of transport and communication, agricultural projects, etc. After more than six and a half decades of Independence, if we evaluate the achievement made by India
in the field of education, we at once become aware of the contribution made by a number of institutes meant for imparting knowledge in various areas.
As the economy has been identified as the most important determinant of a country’s strength and power at the global level, India has also set a great store by the branches of knowledge that are necessary for building a sound economy. The two of the main branches of knowledge—Management and Engineering—have emerged as the most important branches which are not only necessary for the sound foundation of economy, but also as the foundation of sound systems of knowledge that open a door of opportunity for the aspiring millions of Indians. If the contribution of all the Indian institutions imparting Management education is considered as a whole, one cannot help mentioning the names of the Indian Institutes of Management, which are nineteen in number. IIMs. as they are popularly known, are graduate business schools tha: also provide consultancy services in various sectors of Indian economy and conduct world-class research in the field of Management. They were created by the Central Government with a view to identifying the brightest intellectual resource; needed for the growth of Indian economy. Though we have been witnessing a mushrooming growth of Engineering colleges and Management institutes across the country, not all of them fulfill the conditions that are required for ar Engineering college or a B-School in the real sense. There is no denying the fact that in addition to the Indian Institutes of Technologies (IITs), ISM-Dfcanbad, etc. there are thirty one National Institutes of Technology (NITs) and nineteen IIMs a; well as a number of other private Management and Engineering institutes which are comparable to any global institution. A degree or diploma in Business Management is a recognised qualification worldwide. Such degree holders have very wide scope as well as knowledge to grab opportunities to reach higher level in management or any other higher-level position. It give; the knowledge for business and trains how to face the problem; related to business and how to rise up during crucial period of